Tourism is one of the main sources of income and employment in most developed world, as many refer to it as an industry first. Many countries such as Spain, France and Italy a large part of their foreign exchange earnings through tourism gain.
Concepts and terminology:
Basically discuss scientific and technical terms in each field or frame definition of these concepts is essential because the definitions, assumptions, theories and speculation is. So far, tourism and concepts of the various definitions are provided. pay related terms (Holden, 2000, 25) Despite numerous definitions, many researchers, experts and academic circles - International research, the definition of the World tourism organization accepted and recognized it: tourism "to the person act Who knows Tourism Organization to devise "a minimum of one night in a public or private accommodation in the place visited, to win". (World Tourism Organization)
.tourism social phenomenon plays an important role in GDP, "the balance of payments, which represents international transactions per country, makes balance. a significant increase revenue and reduce unemployment and thus increase social welfare. In addition, tourism is a factor for dialogue between cultures and civilizations and politically well balanced and closer relationship between the United Nations and governments.
(Phenol, 2003: 33) other types of tourism is on the rise, such as space tourism, e-tourism, which in recent years has begun. Here are some of the most important types of tourism are mentioned:
Recreational tourism: in this type of tourism, coastal tourism is very important and tourists tend to use the four S (sun, sea, sex, sand) will travel to different parts of the coast.
Nature tourism: space of this pattern, natural environments like beaches, forests, mountains, deserts, and caves such as these.
Business tourism in trips to trade is done.
Urban Tourism: urban areas because the attractions are very often are important tourist destinations.
Rural tourism in rural tourism, cultural resources, natural and historic rural areas as a cultural commodity Rzhand Tourism.
Ethnic and tribal tourism: this type of tourism is done in order to observe the lifestyle of indigenous people and ethnic groups.
Religious tourism: people who will order the Holy Dydarazamakn travel Yaanjam religious affairs.
Sports tourism: a large number of guests from different countries Ashkhasyand with the intention to exercise or participate in sports, watch their favorite teams or players, or gone on a trip through sports camps.
Adventure tourism: in any society are those who have a passion to do things bold and risky. Some of these people to their inner adventure travel respond to this need.
Sex tourism: some tourists to travel to other parts of your needs and satisfy sexual instincts,
Health Tourism: such a trip will include a variety of activities aimed at health promotion or tourism such as health care and convalescence and rehabilitation.
Space tourism: a different kind of tourist travel to space in recent years has begun.
Electronic Tourism: spread of facilities and electronic devices such as TV, satellite and the Internet, has caused more people to communicate easily with other parts of the world.
Gathering this type of tourism and scientific and Grdshgryha in research or participate in scientific conferences.
Art Tourism: Tourism Arts Art in understanding other nations affairs.
Historical tourism: this kind of tourism which is also called heritage tourism, to visit museums, historical places and buildings, tourism accounted for much of today.
"Cultural tourism is travel for people from your location to places that are cultural attractions. The shift to business and business to be done to satisfy the needs of cultural tourism. "(Kazemi, 1385: 154).
The effects of tourism
"Tourism development may be a way to bring advantages and limitations of the other side. affects indigenous people.
Negative impacts of tourism
The negative effects of tourism can be divided into four categories: cultural - social, economic, environmental and psychological - psychological divided.
(Chuck Wow, 1385: 47).
Negative effects (psychological) tourism because of crowding, traffic, pollution Vamdkhvdrvha Azrft and cultural changes likely to impact on traditional context some areas responsible for emotional effects Brmrdm region.
Negative effects (environmental) Tourists will enjoy the natural beauty and may cause environmental degradation.
friendly offer tourists. Possible cultural tourism and everything related to them, for example the host community and residents to blindly imitate the culture of paying guests (ZARGHAM, 1376: 392)
The positive effects of tourism
Positive effects (economic) create new job opportunities, exchange technology, improve the lives of people, including the direct benefits of tourism services and tourism could indirectly benefit from construction activities, crafts, art, agriculture, services, development and improvement of equipment infrastructure such as roads, and transportation systems named. "(Alvani, 1385: 123).
the more your achievements in the form of crafts, paintings, photographs and ... show Dhnd.grdshgry increase in income, employment and economic prosperity and this will be emotionally, psychologically positive effect on the morale of society.
Positive effects (ecological) tourism can cause more attention people responsible for the organization of the International even in some areas and try to protect it.
Cultural positive effects of socio-tourism development as a cultural phenomenon makes ample opportunity for cultural exchange between tourists and the host community there. On this basis they are able to respect the culture even more. The only way to engage tourists to respect the culture of the host society, which can be a good strategy for tourism development. (Papal Yazdi, 1385, 88)
Generally in five categories: transportation, food, accommodation, services and attractions fit:
"Transportation System is at the heart of the tourism industry. The interface between the destination system, Myhmankhanh, tourist attractions and other places are. Efficiency, comfort and safety, the system determines the type of travel experience and a benefit that is obtained "(Chuck Wow, 1385: 66) hiking, biking, personal vehicles, public-road vehicles, rail traffic, marine and air are the various forms of transport. "
A) transport (rail)
Despite the late nineteenth century railway transport is one of the most widely used in Europe and America. But in the twentieth century with the launch of airlines and increased production of automobiles, aircraft and rail transport instead of their cars were
B) Ground Transportation
Today, a large number of traveling by road transport vehicles, including small cars, large, public and private is performed. This diversity means that it can meet the tastes and needs of tourists so many personal Bashd.khvdrvhay, car rentals, buses, mini-buses, recreational vehicles, taxi transport of passengers.
C) sea transport
D) Air Transport
Tourism is one of the most common aircraft equipment. Bvtyng Airbus and airline industry leading companies currently are developing countries and are even some spaceflight to orbit the Earth and the moon. This industry is always fluctuating in the face: the season, the price of fuel, terrorist acts can affect the activity Dhd.grchh airlines Iran Air flights is a long history (in 1935 the first aircraft landed in Iran, the first by a Polish airport international (Tehran Mehrabad) was founded in 1955).
2. Food and Restaurants
After the cost of travel, hotel and meal usually costs the same amount of rest Tkyl passengers are and how much they spend for food travelers that "between 18 and 20 percent of the total trip cost him up" (Chakvay, 1385: 105)
Lodging services, a term used for the preparation of sleep and rest facilities, with a focus on helping businesses in the tourism industry and visitors used (Smith, 1995: 10) Many authors (including Holloway Halloway), 1994: 65 (McIntosh and Gldnr 1990: 33 and Snyklr and Astblr, 1997: 71) emphasize that the accommodation and catering services in the tourism industry is one of the most complex and dynamic sectors of the industry.
"The major impact of tourism economy, through the creation of services and facilities for passengers. Restaurants and food service facilities, accommodation and catering, transport services, camps, information services, recreational facilities - sports and shops, most of the employment, income and taxes are the source. Products and services are distributed directly or indirectly to tourism in two ways, here are some factors will be referred to the distribution of tourism products and services.
"Wholesaler agencies as intermediaries between the supplier of goods and services, tourism and travel agencies (the retailer counts) act."
"Curator picnics him" responsible for land-based activities ", also known as the first wholesaler in smaller level, provides travel services and products" (Chakvay, 1385: 136)
Sfrgzaryha, the tourism industry, retailers played a role Sfrgzaryha that all services needed by tourists, such as travel tickets, store, hotel and car rental are offered.
"To attract tourists from different countries and regions and with different motivations, resources and attractions in destination is essential. Kazemi, 1385: 85) According to McConnell (1974) Tourist attractions include: "an empirical relationship between the tourist or traveler, visitor location, and the guide that provides information specific to that place." usually two main attractions and natural attractions cultural divide
tourism in Iran
Iran tourism Knd.dm ignore Iran's success in attracting tourists and tourism development in several ways
I love not only to increase tourism to economists, the solution is actually in the hands of government and planning because they tend to promote tourism and attract tourists if they do not have and historical attractions, natural and cultural work is not alone. On the other hand, however, should not experience the people and culture. According to the head of the World tourism organization, the vast sub-continent and the first 5 countries with the most attractions and animal life in the world. It is also one of the top three poles in the world of crafts, pottery, Glassblowing, scrimshaw, Mshbkkary, engraving on metal, pug, seal-making, Mrqkary, Marquetry, weaving, Felting and Iran mixture of cultural diversity, linguistic, ethnic, environmental and climate. In terms of historical and cultural heritage is among top ten countries of the world. (James M., The East, 7 / 5/1383, tourism hidden fortune)
is to develop methods of administrative support, investment and accounted for more facilities for hotels, airlines, airports, etc. to promote tourism attractions through the internet, videos, brochures, articles, etc. the exhibition can be useful.
World Tourism Organization, the number of international tourists in 2020, more than 1.6 billion forecast accordingly be seen, despite the ravages of sectional and regional, due to rapid economic growth in populous countries such as China, India, Brazil, Indonesia tourism and Russia will be expanded to Nhvkhvsh objective. ITP Mntqh also expected to increase, while the growth of foreign tourism will decline in the long run. (Chuck Wow, 1385,51). Rshdgrdshgry at this level, opportunities and threats to the environment, communities and interaction between them will bring, success in tourism comes time to ensure that life would Rshdkyfyt, national income and cultural environment Vzysty the same time. In this way it can assist research organizations and companies related to the tourism sector is causing Bashdvazayn identify priorities and policy making through innovative payment to predict market trends, thus providing non-accidental injuries reduced risk Vrvydadhay